ACL / CCL Injuries in Dogs
Keeping your dog's knees healthy and pain free is essential to providing your dog with an active lifestyle.
While there are a number of high quality dog foods and supplements that your vet can recommend to help keep your dog's joints in good condition, cruciate injuries (or ACL injuries as they are sometimes called) do happen and can cause your dog a great deal of discomfort.
The Cranial Cruciate Ligament in Dogs
Your dog's cranial cruciate ligament (CCL, ACL or cruciate) is one of two ligaments in your dogs leg that connect the shin bone to the thigh bone and allows for proper movement of the knee.
Knee pain and injury stemming from a torn ACL can come on suddenly during exercise, but is equally likely to gradually develop over a period of time. If your dog has an injured cruciate and continues to run, jump and play then the injury is likely to become much more severe and symptoms more pronounced.
When your dog has a torn ACL pain arises from the knee's instability and a motion called 'tibial thrust'.
Tibial thrust is a sliding motion caused by the transmission of weight up the dog's shin bone and across the knee, causing the shinbone to “thrust” forward in relation to the dog's thigh bone. This forward thrust movement occurs because the top of the tibia is sloped, and the dog's injured ACL is unable to prevent the unwanted movement from occurring.
Signs & Symptoms of Knee Injuries in Dogs
If your dog is suffering from knee pain due to an injured ALC they will not be able to run or walk normally and will likely display other symptoms such as:
- Difficulties rising up off of the floor
- Limping in their hind legs
- Stiffness following exercise
Surgery Options for Treating ACL Injuries in Dogs
ACL injuries in dogs typically do not heal themselves. If your dog is showing signs of a torn ACL it's important to see a vet to have the condition diagnosed so that treatment can begin before symptoms become worse.
If your dog has a torn ACL your vet is likely to recommend one of three different knee surgeries to help your dog regain normal mobility.
ELSS / ECLS - Extracapsular Lateral Suture Stabilization
This surgical treatment is often used to treat dog's that weigh less than 50 pounds and works by preventing the tibial thrust with a surgically placed suture. The suture stabilizes the dog's knee by pulling the joint tight and preventing the front-to-back sliding of the tibia so that the ACL has time to heal, and the muscles surrounding the knee have an opportunity to regain their strength. ELSS surgery is fairly quick and uncomplicated with a good success rate in small to medium sized dogs.
TPLO - Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy
TPLO is more complicated than ELSS surgery and aims to reduce tibial thrust without relying on the dog's ACL. This surgery involves making a complete cut through the top of the tibia (tibial plateau), then rotating the tibial plateau in order to change its angle. Finally a metal plate is added to stabilize the cut bone as it heals. Over the course of several months, your dog's leg will gradually heal and strengthen.
TTA - Tibial Tuberosity Advancement
TTA is similar to TPLO but can be a slightly less invasive treatment. This knee surgery involves surgically separating the front part of the tibia from the rest of the bone, then adding a spacer between the two sections to move the front section up and forward. This helps the knee to prevent much of the tibia thrust movement from occurring. A bone plate will be attached to hold the front section of the tibia in its correct position until the bone has had sufficient time to heal. Dogs with a steep tibial plateau (angle of the top section of the tibia) are excellent candidates for TTA surgery.
Which type of ACL surgery is right for my dog?
Following a thorough examination of your dog's knee movement and geometry, your vet will consider your dog's age, weight, size and lifestyle, then recommend the treatment that's best for your dog.
How long will it take for my dog to recover from ACL surgery?
Healing from ACL surgery is a long process. While many dogs are able to walk as soon as 24 hours after surgery, a full recovery and a return to normal activities will take 12 - 16 weeks or more. Following your vet's post-operative instructions will help your dog to return to normal activities as soon as safely possible, while reducing the risk of re-injury.
To find out more about surgery options to treat your dog's ACL injury, contact Hillcrest Animal Hospital today, to book a consultation with one of our Bartlett vets.
Looking for a vet in Memphis?We're always accepting new patients, so contact our veterinary hospital today to book your pet's first appointment.
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